Science Program Models for Ohio Schools
Science is built up with facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of
facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.
The two program models presented herethe Discipline-Based Model and the Integrated Modelare designed to integrate students’ learning of science processes and science content
via classroom instruction that thoughtfully sequences cycles of scientific inquiry with other types of science
learning activities. These learning activities may include lectures, reading, and discussion as well as student
reflection and performance assessment. This comprehensive work approach helps students develop an understanding
of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work while expanding their range of cognitive abilities in the
- Mastering science subject matter
- Reasoning and communicating scientifically
- Understanding and doing scientific inquiry
- Applying science subject matter (National Research Council of the National Academics, 2006)
At the heart of all good standards-based science instruction are three key processes:
Each is equally important, and together they form the foundation for both program models.
Possible Course Sequences