Ohio Resource Center
Lessons
Exploring Pendulums
Discipline
Science
8, 9, 10
Professional Commentary

Based on their observations of the movement of pendulums, students begin to understand the relationship between gravitational forces and the mass of objects, the changes in speed and direction of objects, and the distance between objects. This lesson helps students understand concepts related to how gravitational forces act on objects. (author/kct)

The majority of the exploration of pendulums is done virtually through various simulations. (mds)

Next Generation Science Standards (2012)
Scientific and Engineering Practices

Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking

Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)
Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and matter
Ohio Science Academic Content Standards (2010)
Science Inquiry and Application
Physical Science
Forces and Motion
1.
Forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching.
High School
Physical Science
Ohio Science Academic Content Standards (2002)
Physical Sciences
Benchmarks (6–8)
B.
In simple cases, describe the motion of objects and conceptually describe the effects of forces on an object.
Benchmarks (9–10)
D.
Explain the movement of objects by applying Newton's three laws of motion.
3.
Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes that object's speed and/or direction.
22.
Demonstrate that any object does not accelerate (remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion) unless an unbalanced (net) force acts on it.
Scientific Inquiry
Benchmarks (6–8)
A.
Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools.
B.
Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.
Benchmarks (9–10)
A.
Participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigation to create models and to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate the results of these investigations.
1.
Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however it is not always possible to control all variables.
3.
Formulate and identify questions to guide scientific investigations that connect to science concepts and can be answered through scientific investigations.
7.
Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical phenomena and infer mathematical relationships between variables (e.g., speed, density).