Ohio Resource Center
NAEP Assessment Item, Grade 4: Explain why lightning is seen before thunder is heard
3, 4, 5
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Professional Commentary
Students are asked to explain why lightning is seen before thunder is heard. This constructed response question is a sample test item used in past National Assessments of Educational Progress (see About NAEP). The URL link above takes the user to the NAEP test item, with access to performance data by various subgroups, a scoring guide and student responses, and the content on which the item is based. The NAEP web site allows users to build their own printable database of test items by clicking on Add Question in the upper right hand corner of the screen. NAEP Reference Number: 2005-4S13 No.: 10.

Ohio Science Academic Content Standards (2002)
Physical Sciences
Benchmarks (3–5)
Describe the forces that directly affect objects and their motion.
Describe the properties of light and sound energy.
Grade Level Indicators (Grade 3)
Describe an objects position by locating it relative to another object or the background.
Describe an objects motion by tracing and measuring its position over time.
Grade Level Indicators (Grade 5)
Explore and summarize observations of the transmission, bending (refraction) and reflection of light.
Describe and summarize observations of the transmission, reflection, and absorption of sound.
National Science Education Standards
Physical Science
Position and motion of objects (Grades Kindergarten - 4)
Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism (Grades Kindergarten - 4)