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Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 1

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Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard
Students in the primary grades learn to recognize and decode printed words, developing the skills that are the foundations for independent reading. They discover the alphabetic principle (sound-symbol match) and learn to use it in figuring out new words. They build a stock of sight words that helps them to read quickly and accurately with comprehension. By the end of the third grade, they demonstrate fluent oral reading, varying their intonation and timing as appropriate for the text.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Identify and distinguish between letters, words and sentences. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify and say the beginning and ending sounds in words. (ORC Resources)
3.Demonstrate an understanding of letter-sound correspondence by saying the sounds from all letters and from a variety of letter patterns, such as consonant blends and long- and short-vowel patterns, and by matching sounds to the corresponding letters. (ORC Resources)
4.Decode by using letter-sound matches. (ORC Resources)
5.Use knowledge of common word families (e.g., -ite or -ate) to sound out unfamiliar words. (ORC Resources)
6.Blend two to four phonemes (sounds) into words. (ORC Resources)
7.Add, delete or change sounds in a given word to create new or rhyming words. (ORC Resources)
8.Demonstrate a growing stock of sight words. (ORC Resources)
9.Read text using fluid and automatic decoding skills, including knowledge of patterns, onsets and rimes. (ORC Resources)
10.Read aloud with changes in emphasis, voice, timing and expression that show a recognition of punctuation and an understanding of meaning. (ORC Resources)
  
Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Use knowledge of word order and in-sentence context clues to support word identification and to define unknown words while reading. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify words that have similar meanings (synonyms) and words that have opposite meanings (antonyms). (ORC Resources)
3.Classify words into categories (e.g., colors, fruits, vegetables). (ORC Resources)
4.Recognize common sight words. (ORC Resources)
5.Recognize that words can sound alike but have different meanings (e.g., homophones such as hair and hare). (ORC Resources)
6.Predict the meaning of compound words using knowledge of individual words (e.g., daydream, raindrop). (ORC Resources)
7.Recognize contractions (e.g., isn't, aren't, can't, won't) and common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Feb.). (ORC Resources)
8.Read root words and their inflectional endings (e.g., walk, walked, walking). (ORC Resources)
9.Determine the meaning of unknown words using a beginner's dictionary. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Describe the role of authors and illustrators. (ORC Resources)
2.Establish a purpose for reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions or to be entertained). (ORC Resources)
3.Visualize the information in texts and demonstrate this by drawing pictures, discussing images in texts or writing simple descriptions. (ORC Resources)
4.Make predictions while reading and support predictions with information from the text or prior experience. (ORC Resources)
5.Compare information (e.g., recognize similarities) in texts with prior knowledge and experience. (ORC Resources)
6.Recall the important ideas in fictional and non-fictional texts. (ORC Resources)
7.Create and use graphic organizers such as Venn diagrams or webs, with teacher assistance, to demonstrate comprehension. (ORC Resources)
8.Answer literal, simple inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
9.Monitor comprehension of independently- or group-read texts by asking and answering questions. (ORC Resources)
10.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
11.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Use title page, photographs, captions and illustrations (text features) to develop comprehension of informational texts. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify the sequence of events in informational text. (ORC Resources)
3.Ask questions concerning essential elements of informational text (e.g., why, who, where, what, when and how). (ORC Resources)
4.Identify central ideas and supporting details of informational text with teacher assistance. (ORC Resources)
5.Identify and discuss simple diagrams, charts, graphs and maps as characteristics of nonfiction. (ORC Resources)
6.Follow multiple-step directions. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Provide own interpretation of story, using information from the text. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify characters, setting and events in a story. (ORC Resources)
3.Retell the beginning, middle and ending of a story, including its important events. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify differences between stories, poems and plays. (ORC Resources)
5.Recognize predictable patterns in stories and poems. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others. (ORC Resources)
2.Develop a main idea for writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Determine purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
4.Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
5.Organize writing to include a beginning, middle and end. (ORC Resources)
6.Construct complete sentences with subjects and verbs. (ORC Resources)
7.Mimic language from literature when appropriate. (ORC Resources)
8.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
9.Reread own writing for clarity. (ORC Resources)
10.Add descriptive words and details. (ORC Resources)
11.Use resources (e.g., a word wall, beginner's dictionary, word bank) to select effective vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
12.Proofread writing to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization). (ORC Resources)
13.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist, feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
14.Rewrite and illustrate writing samples for display and for sharing with others. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Write simple stories with a beginning, middle and end that include descriptive words and details. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to stories that include simple judgments about the text. (ORC Resources)
3.Write friendly letters or invitations that follow a simple letter format. (ORC Resources)
4.Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Print legibly, and space letters, words and sentences appropriately. (ORC Resources)
2.Spell words correctly with regular short vowel patterns and most common long vowel words (e.g., time, name). (ORC Resources)
3.Spell high-frequency words correctly. (ORC Resources)
4.Create phonetically-spelled written work that can usually be read by the writer and others. (ORC Resources)
5.Spell unfamiliar words using strategies such as segmenting, sounding out and matching familiar words and word parts. (ORC Resources)
6.Use end punctuation correctly, including question marks, exclamation points and periods. (ORC Resources)
7.Use correct capitalization (e.g., the first word in a sentence, names and the pronoun I). (ORC Resources)
8.Use nouns, verbs and adjectives (descriptive words). (ORC Resources)
  
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Discuss ideas for investigation about a topic or area of personal interest. (ORC Resources)
2.Utilize appropriate searching techniques to gather information, with teacher assistance, from a variety of locations (e.g., classroom, school library, public library or community resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Use books or observations to gather information to explain a topic or unit of study with teacher assistance. (ORC Resources)
4.Recall important information about a topic with teacher assistance. (ORC Resources)
5.Report information to others. (ORC Resources)
  
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 1
1.Use active listening skills, such as making eye contact or asking questions. (ORC Resources)
2.Compare what is heard with prior knowledge and experience. (ORC Resources)
3.Follow simple oral directions. (ORC Resources)
4.Speak clearly and understandably. (ORC Resources)
5.Deliver brief informational presentations that: a. demonstrate an understanding of the topic; b. include and sort relevant information and details to develop topic; c. organize information with a clear beginning and ending; and d. express opinions. (ORC Resources)
6.Deliver brief informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)
7.Deliver simple dramatic presentations (e.g., recite poems, rhymes, songs and stories). (ORC Resources)