Ohio Resource Center
[blank]

Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 12

Return to grade list
  
Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Recognize and identify how authors clarify meanings of words through context and use definition, restatement, example, comparison, contrast and cause and effect to advance word study. (ORC Resources)
2.Analyze the relationships of pairs of words in analogical statements (e.g., synonyms and antonyms, connotation and denotation) and evaluate the effectiveness of analogous relationships. (ORC Resources)
3.Examine and explain the influence of the English language on world literature, communications and popular cultures. (ORC Resources)
4.Use knowledge of Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes and suffixes to understand complex words and new subject-area vocabulary (e.g., unknown words in science, mathematics and social studies). (ORC Resources)
5.Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing and making inferences and drawing conclusions. (ORC Resources)
2.Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
3.Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back, note taking or summarizing what has been read so far in text. (ORC Resources)
4.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
5.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Analyze the rhetorical devices used in public documents, including state or school policy statements, newspaper editorials and speeches. (ORC Resources)
2.Analyze and critique organizational patterns and techniques including repetition of ideas, appeals to authority, reason and emotion, syntax and word choice that authors use to accomplish their purpose and reach their intended audience. (ORC Resources)
3.Analyze and compile information from several sources on a single issue or written by a single author, clarifying ideas and connecting them to other sources and related topics. (ORC Resources)
4.Distinguish between valid and invalid inferences and provide evidence to support the findings, noting instances of unsupported inferences, fallacious reasoning, propaganda techniques, bias and stereotyping. (ORC Resources)
5.Examine an author's implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions and beliefs about a subject. (ORC Resources)
6.Evaluate the effectiveness and validity of arguments in public documents and their appeal to various audiences. (ORC Resources)
7.Analyze the structure and features of functional and workplace documents, including format, sequence and headers, and how authors use these features to achieve their purposes and to make information accessible and usable. (ORC Resources)
8.Critique functional and workplace documents (e.g., instructions, technical manuals, travel schedules and business memoranda) for sequencing of information and procedures, anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings and visual appeal. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters confronting similar conflicts (e.g., individual vs. nature, freedom vs. responsibility, individual vs. society), using specific examples of characters' thoughts, words and actions. (ORC Resources)
2.Analyze the historical, social and cultural context of setting. (ORC Resources)
3.Explain how voice and narrator affect the characterization, plot and credibility. (ORC Resources)
4.Evaluate an author's use of point of view in a literary text. (ORC Resources)
5.Analyze variations of universal themes in literary texts. (ORC Resources)
6.Recognize and differentiate characteristics of subgenres, including satire, parody and allegory, and explain how choice of genre affects the expression of theme or topic. (ORC Resources)
7.Compare and contrast varying characteristics of American, British, world and multi-cultural literature. (ORC Resources)
8.Evaluate ways authors develop point of view and style to achieve specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes (e.g., through use of figurative language irony, tone, diction, imagery, symbolism and sounds of language), citing specific examples from text to support analysis. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas. (ORC Resources)
2.Determine the usefulness of and apply appropriate pre-writing tasks (e.g., background reading, interviews or surveys). (ORC Resources)
3.Establish and develop a clear thesis statement for informational writing or a clear plan or outline for narrative writing. (ORC Resources)
4.Determine a purpose and audience and plan strategies (e.g., adapting formality of style, including explanations or definitions as appropriate to audience needs) to address purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
5.Use organizational strategies (e.g., notes and outlines) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
6.Organize writing to create a coherent whole with an effective and engaging introduction, body and conclusion and a closing sentence that summarizes, extends or elaborates on points or ideas in the writing. (ORC Resources)
7.Use a variety of sentence structures and lengths (e.g., simple, compound and complex sentences; parallel or repetitive sentence structure). (ORC Resources)
8.Use paragraph form in writing, including topic sentences that arrange paragraphs in a logical sequence, using effective transitions and closing sentences and maintaining coherence across the whole through the use of parallel structures. (ORC Resources)
9.Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, colorful modifiers and style as appropriate to audience and purpose, and use techniques to convey a personal style and voice. (ORC Resources)
10.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
11.Reread and analyze clarity of writing, consistency of point of view and effectiveness of organizational structure. (ORC Resources)
12.Add and delete examples and details to better elaborate on a stated central idea, to develop more precise analysis or persuasive argument or to enhance plot, setting and character in narrative texts. (ORC Resources)
13.Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs and add transitional words and phrases to clarify meaning and achieve specific aesthetic and rhetorical purposes. (ORC Resources)
14.Use resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to select effective and precise vocabulary that maintains consistent style, tone and voice. (ORC Resources)
15.Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization), identify and correct fragments and run-ons and eliminate inappropriate slang or informal language. (ORC Resources)
16.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
17.Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a manuscript form appropriate for the purpose, which could include such techniques as electronic resources, principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing and columns) and graphics (e.g., drawings, charts and graphs) to enhance the final product. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Write reflective compositions that: a. use personal experiences as a basis for reflection on some aspect of life; b. draw abstract comparisons between specific incidents and abstract concepts; c. maintain a balance between describing incidents and relating them to more general, abstract ideas that illustrate personal beliefs; and d. move from specific examples to generalizations about life. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to literature that: a. advance a judgment that is interpretative, analytical, evaluative or reflective; b. support key ideas and viewpoints with accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works and authors; c. analyze the author's use of stylistic devices and express an appreciation of the effects the devices create; d. identify and assess the impact of possible ambiguities, nuances and complexities within text; e. anticipate and answer a reader's questions, counterclaims or divergent interpretations; and f. provide a sense of closure to the writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Write functional documents (e.g., requests for information, resumes, letters of complaint, memos, proposals) that: a. report, organize and convey information accurately; b. use formatting techniques that make a document user-friendly; and c. anticipate readers' problems, mistakes and misunderstandings. (ORC Resources)
4.Write informational essays or reports, including research, that: a. develop a controlling idea that conveys a perspective on the subject; b. create an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience and context; c. include information on all relevant perspectives, considering the validity and reliability of primary and secondary sources; d. make distinctions about the relative value and significance of specific data, facts and ideas; e. anticipate and address a reader's potential biases, misunderstandings and expectations; and f. provide a sense of closure to the writing. (ORC Resources)
5.Write persuasive compositions that: a. articulate a clear position; b. support assertions using rhetorical devices, including appeals to emotion or logic and personal anecdotes; and c. develop arguments using a variety of methods (e.g., examples, beliefs, expert opinion, cause-effect reasoning). (ORC Resources)
6.Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Use correct spelling conventions. (ORC Resources)
2.Use correct capitalization and punctuation. (ORC Resources)
3.Use correct grammar (e.g., verb tenses, parallel structure, indefinite and relative pronouns). (ORC Resources)
  
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Compose open-ended questions for research, assigned or personal interest, and modify questions as necessary during inquiry and investigation to narrow the focus or extend the investigation. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify appropriate sources and gather relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Determine the accuracy of sources and the credibility of the author by analyzing the sources' validity (e.g., authority, accuracy, objectivity, publication date and coverage, etc.). (ORC Resources)
4.Analyze the complexities and discrepancies in information and systematically organize relevant information to support central ideas, concepts and themes. (ORC Resources)
5.Integrate quotations and citations into written text to maintain a flow of ideas. (ORC Resources)
6.Use style guides to produce oral and written reports that give proper credit for sources and include appropriate in-text documentation, notes and an acceptable format for source acknowledgement. (ORC Resources)
7.Use a variety of communication techniques including oral, visual, written or multimedia report to present information that supports a clear position about the topic or research question and defend the credibility and validity of the information presented. (ORC Resources)
  
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 12
1.Apply active listening strategies (e.g., monitoring message for clarity, selecting and organizing essential information, noting cues such as changes in pace). (ORC Resources)
2.Analyze types of arguments used by the speaker, such as causation, analogy and logic. (ORC Resources)
3.Critique the clarity, effectiveness and overall coherence of a speaker's key points. (ORC Resources)
4.Evaluate how language choice, diction, syntax and delivery style (e.g., repetition, appeal to emotion, eye contact) affect the mood and tone and impact the audience. (ORC Resources)
5.Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language and select language appropriate to purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
6.Adjust volume, tempo, phrasing, enunciation, voice modulation and inflection to stress important ideas and impact audience response. (ORC Resources)
7.Vary language choices as appropriate to the context of the speech. (ORC Resources)
8.Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that: a. present a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject; b. present events or ideas in a logical sequence; c. support the controlling idea or thesis with well-chosen and relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes; d. include an effective introduction and conclusion and use a consistent organizational structure (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution); e. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology to enhance presentation; and f. draw from and cite multiple sources, including both primary and secondary sources, and consider the validity and reliability of sources. (ORC Resources)
9.Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)
10.Deliver persuasive presentations that: a. establish and develop a logical and controlled argument; b. include relevant evidence, differentiating between evidence and opinion, to support a position and to address counter-arguments or listener biases; c. use persuasive strategies such as rhetorical devices; anecdotes and appeals to emotion, authority, reason, pathos and logic; d. consistently use common organizational structures as appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution); and e. use speaking techniques (e.g., reasoning, emotional appeal, case studies or analogies). (ORC Resources)