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Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 2

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Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard
Students in the primary grades learn to recognize and decode printed words, developing the skills that are the foundations for independent reading. They discover the alphabetic principle (sound-symbol match) and learn to use it in figuring out new words. They build a stock of sight words that helps them to read quickly and accurately with comprehension. By the end of the third grade, they demonstrate fluent oral reading, varying their intonation and timing as appropriate for the text.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Identify rhyming words with the same or different spelling patterns. (ORC Resources)
2.Read regularly spelled multi-syllable words by sight. (ORC Resources)
3.Blend phonemes (sounds) of letters and syllables to read unknown words with one or more syllables. (ORC Resources)
4.Use knowledge of common word families (e.g., -ite or -ate) to sound out unfamiliar words. (ORC Resources)
5.Segment letter, letter blends and syllable sounds in words. (ORC Resources)
6.Distinguish and identify the beginning, middle and ending sounds in words. (ORC Resources)
7.Identify words as having either short- or long-vowel sounds. (ORC Resources)
8.Demonstrate a growing stock of sight words. (ORC Resources)
9.Read text using fluid and automatic decoding skills. (ORC Resources)
10.Read passages fluently with appropriate changes in voice, timing and expression. (ORC Resources)
  
Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Use knowledge of word order and in-sentence context clues to support word identification and to define unknown words while reading. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify words that have similar meanings (synonyms) and words that have opposite meanings (antonyms). (ORC Resources)
3.Classify words into categories (e.g., colors, fruits, vegetables). (ORC Resources)
4.Read accurately high-frequency sight words. (ORC Resources)
5.Read homographs aloud correctly, adjusting sounds to fit meaning, and use words in context. (ORC Resources)
6.Determine the meaning of common compound words (e.g., lunchroom, baseball) by explaining the relationship between the words contained in the compound. (ORC Resources)
7.Identify contractions and common abbreviations and connect them to whole words. (ORC Resources)
8.Determine the meaning of prefixes, including un-, re-, pre-, and suffixes, including -er, -est, -ful, -less. (ORC Resources)
9.Use root words (e.g., smile) and their various inflections (e.g., smiles, smiling, smiled) to determine the meaning of words. (ORC Resources)
10.Determine the meaning and pronunciations of unknown words using a beginner's dictionary, glossaries and technology. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Establish a purpose for reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions or to be entertained). (ORC Resources)
2.Predict content, events and outcomes from illustrations and prior experience and support those predictions with examples from the text or background knowledge. (ORC Resources)
3.Compare and contrast information in texts with prior knowledge and experience. (ORC Resources)
4.Summarize text by recalling main ideas and some supporting details. (ORC Resources)
5.Create and use graphic organizers, such as Venn diagrams and webs, to demonstrate comprehension. (ORC Resources)
6.Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
7.Monitor comprehension by recognizing when text does not make sense and look back or read on to reinforce comprehension. (ORC Resources)
8.Monitor reading comprehension by identifying word errors and self-correcting. (ORC Resources)
9.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
10.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Use the table of contents, glossary, captions and illustrations to identify information and to comprehend text. (ORC Resources)
2.Arrange events from informational text in sequential order. (ORC Resources)
3.List questions about essential elements from informational text (e.g., why, who, where, what, when and how) and identify answers. (ORC Resources)
4.Classify ideas from informational texts as main ideas or supporting details. (ORC Resources)
5.Identify information in diagrams, charts, graphs and maps. (ORC Resources)
6.Analyze a set of directions for proper sequencing. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Compare and contrast different versions of the same story. (ORC Resources)
2.Describe characters and setting. (ORC Resources)
3.Retell the plot of a story. (ORC Resources)
4.Distinguish between stories, poems, plays, fairy tales and fables. (ORC Resources)
5.Identify words from texts that appeal to the senses. (ORC Resources)
6.Identify the theme of a text. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others. (ORC Resources)
2.Develop a main idea for writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Develop a purpose and audience for writing. (ORC Resources)
4.Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
5.Organize writing with a developed beginning, middle and end. (ORC Resources)
6.Use a range of complete sentences, including declarative, interrogative and exclamatory. (ORC Resources)
7.Include transitional words and phrases. (ORC Resources)
8.Use language for writing that is different from oral language, mimicking writing style of books when appropriate. (ORC Resources)
9.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
10.Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer's circle or author's chair). (ORC Resources)
11.Add descriptive words and details and delete extraneous information. (ORC Resources)
12.Use resources (e.g., word wall, beginner's dictionary and word bank) to select effective vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
13.Proofread writing to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization). (ORC Resources)
14.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
15.Rewrite and illustrate writing samples for display and for sharing with others. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Write stories that convey a clear message, include details, use vivid language and move through a logical sequence of steps and events. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to stories by comparing text to other texts, or to people or events in their own lives. (ORC Resources)
3.Write letters or invitations that include relevant information and follow letter format (e.g., date, proper salutation, body, closing and signature). (ORC Resources)
4.Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Print legibly, and space letters, words and sentences appropriately. (ORC Resources)
2.Spell words with consonant blends and digraphs. (ORC Resources)
3.Spell regularly used and high-frequency words correctly. (ORC Resources)
4.Spell words studied (e.g., word lists, text words) correctly. (ORC Resources)
5.Spell plurals and verb tenses correctly. (ORC Resources)
6.Begin to use spelling patterns and rules correctly (e.g., dropping silent e before adding -ing). (ORC Resources)
7.Use spelling strategies (e.g., word wall, word lists, thinking about the base word and affixes). (ORC Resources)
8.Use periods, question marks and exclamation points as endpoints correctly. (ORC Resources)
9.Use quotation marks. (ORC Resources)
10.Use correct punctuation for contractions and abbreviations. (ORC Resources)
11.Use correct capitalization (e.g., proper nouns, the first word in a sentence, months and days). (ORC Resources)
12.Use nouns, verbs and adjectives correctly. (ORC Resources)
13.Use subjects and verbs that are in agreement. (ORC Resources)
14.Use personal pronouns. (ORC Resources)
15.Use past and present verb tenses (e.g., "we were" rather than "we was"). (ORC Resources)
16.Use nouns and pronouns that are in agreement. (ORC Resources)
  
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Create questions for investigations, assigned topic or personal area of interest. (ORC Resources)
2.Utilize appropriate searching techniques to gather information from a variety of locations (e.g., classroom, school library, public library or community resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Acquire information, with teacher assistance, from multiple sources (e.g., books, magazines, videotapes, CD-ROMs, Web sites) and collect data (e.g., interviews, experiments, observations or surveys) about the topic. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify important information and write brief notes about the information. (ORC Resources)
5.Sort relevant information about the topic into categories with teacher assistance. (ORC Resources)
6.Report important findings to others. (ORC Resources)
  
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 2
1.Use active listening strategies, such as making eye contact and asking for clarification and explanation. (ORC Resources)
2.Compare what is heard with prior knowledge and experience. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the main idea of oral presentations and visual media. (ORC Resources)
4.Follow two- and three-step oral directions. (ORC Resources)
5.Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language. (ORC Resources)
6.Select language appropriate to purpose and use clear diction and tone. (ORC Resources)
7.Adjust volume to stress important ideas. (ORC Resources)
8.Deliver informational presentations that: a. present events or ideas in logical sequence and maintain a clear focus; b. demonstrate an understanding of the topic; c. include relevant facts and details to develop a topic; d. organize information with a clear beginning and ending; e. include diagrams, charts or illustrations as appropriate; and f. identify sources. (ORC Resources)
9.Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)
10.Deliver simple dramatic presentations (e.g., recite poems, rhymes, songs and stories). (ORC Resources)