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Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 3

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Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard
Students in the primary grades learn to recognize and decode printed words, developing the skills that are the foundations for independent reading. They discover the alphabetic principle (sound-symbol match) and learn to use it in figuring out new words. They build a stock of sight words that helps them to read quickly and accurately with comprehension. By the end of the third grade, they demonstrate fluent oral reading, varying their intonation and timing as appropriate for the text.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Identify rhyming words with the same or different spelling patterns. (ORC Resources)
2.Use letter-sound knowledge and structural analysis to decode words. (ORC Resources)
3.Use knowledge of common word families (e.g., -ite or -ate) and complex word families (e.g., -ould, -ight) to sound out unfamiliar words. (ORC Resources)
4.Demonstrate a growing stock of sight words. (ORC Resources)
5.Read text using fluid and automatic decoding skills. (ORC Resources)
6.Read passages fluently with changes in tone, voice, timing and expression to demonstrate meaningful comprehension. (ORC Resources)
  
Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Determine the meaning of unknown words using a variety of context clues, including word, sentence and paragraph clues. (ORC Resources)
2.Use context clues to determine the meaning of homophones, homonyms and homographs. (ORC Resources)
3.Apply the meaning of the terms synonyms and antonyms. (ORC Resources)
4.Read accurately high-frequency sight words. (ORC Resources)
5.Apply knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to determine their meanings. (ORC Resources)
6.Use knowledge of contractions and common abbreviations to identify whole words. (ORC Resources)
7.Apply knowledge of prefixes, including un-, re-, pre- and suffixes, including -er, -est, -ful and -less to determine meaning of words. (ORC Resources)
8.Decode and determine the meaning of words by using knowledge of root words and their various inflections. (ORC Resources)
9.Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Establish a purpose for reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions or to be entertained). (ORC Resources)
2.Predict content, events and outcomes by using chapter titles, section headers, illustrations and story topics, and support those predictions with examples from the text. (ORC Resources)
3.Compare and contrast information between texts and across subject areas. (ORC Resources)
4.Summarize texts, sequencing information accurately and include main ideas and details as appropriate. (ORC Resources)
5.Make inferences regarding events and possible outcomes from information in text. (ORC Resources)
6.Create and use graphic organizers, such as Venn diagrams and webs, to demonstrate comprehension. (ORC Resources)
7.Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
8.Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on or looking back. (ORC Resources)
9.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
10.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Use the table of contents, chapter headings, glossary, index, captions and illustrations to locate information and comprehend texts. (ORC Resources)
2.List questions about essential elements (e.g., why, who, where, what, when and how) from informational text and identify answers. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify and list the important central ideas and supporting details of informational text. (ORC Resources)
4.Draw conclusions from information in maps, charts, graphs and diagrams. (ORC Resources)
5.Analyze a set of directions for proper sequencing, clarity and completeness. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Recognize and describe similarities and differences of plot across literary works. (ORC Resources)
2.Use concrete details from the text to describe characters and setting. (ORC Resources)
3.Retell the plot sequence. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify and explain the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including fairy tales, folk tales, poetry, fiction and non-fiction. (ORC Resources)
5.Explain how an author's choice of words appeals to the senses. (ORC Resources)
6.Identify stated and implied themes. (ORC Resources)
7.Describe methods authors use to influence readers' feelings and attitudes (e.g., appeal of characters in a picture book; use of figurative language). (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material. (ORC Resources)
2.Develop a clear main idea for writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Develop a purpose and audience for writing. (ORC Resources)
4.Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
5.Organize writing by providing a simple introduction, body and a clear sense of closure. (ORC Resources)
6.Use a wide range of simple, compound and complex sentences. (ORC Resources)
7.Create paragraphs with topic sentences and supporting sentences that are marked by indentation and are linked by transitional words and phrases. (ORC Resources)
8.Use language for writing that is different from oral language, mimicking writing style of books when appropriate. (ORC Resources)
9.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
10.Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer's circle or author's chair). (ORC Resources)
11.Add descriptive words and details and delete extraneous information. (ORC Resources)
12.Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs to clarify meaning. (ORC Resources)
13.Use resources and reference materials, including dictionaries, to select more effective vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
14.Proofread writing and edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons. (ORC Resources)
15.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
16.Rewrite and illustrate writing samples for display and for sharing with others. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Write stories that sequence events and include descriptive details and vivid language to develop characters, setting and plot. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to novels, stories and poems that demonstrate an understanding of the text and support judgments with specific references to the text. (ORC Resources)
3.Write formal and informal letters (e.g., thank you notes, letters of request) that include relevant information and date, proper salutation, body, closing and signature. (ORC Resources)
4.Write informational reports that include the main ideas and significant details from the text. (ORC Resources)
5.Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Write legibly in cursive, spacing letters, words and sentences appropriately. (ORC Resources)
2.Spell multi-syllabic words correctly. (ORC Resources)
3.Spell all familiar high-frequency words, words with short vowels and common endings correctly. (ORC Resources)
4.Spell contractions, compounds and homonyms (e.g., hair and hare) correctly. (ORC Resources)
5.Use correct spelling of words with common suffixes such as -ion, -ment and -ly. (ORC Resources)
6.Follow common spelling generalizations (e.g., consonant doubling, dropping e and changing y to i). (ORC Resources)
7.Use resources to check spelling (e.g., a dictionary, spell check). (ORC Resources)
8.Use end punctuation marks correctly. (ORC Resources)
9.Use quotation marks around dialogue, commas in a series and apostrophes in contractions and possessives. (ORC Resources)
10.Use correct capitalization. (ORC Resources)
11.Use nouns, verbs and adjectives correctly. (ORC Resources)
12.Use subjects and verbs that are in agreement. (ORC Resources)
13.Use irregular plural nouns. (ORC Resources)
14.Use nouns and pronouns that are in agreement. (ORC Resources)
15.Use past, present and future verb tenses. (ORC Resources)
16.Use possessive nouns and pronouns. (ORC Resources)
17.Use conjunctions. (ORC Resources)
  
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Choose a topic for research from a list of questions, assigned topic or personal area of interest. (ORC Resources)
2.Utilize appropriate searching techniques to gather information from a variety of locations (e.g., classroom, school library, public library or community resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Acquire information from multiple sources (e.g., books, magazines, videotapes, CD-ROMs, Web sites) and collect data (e.g., interviews, experiments, observations or surveys) about the topic. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify important information found in the sources and summarize the important findings. (ORC Resources)
5.Sort relevant information into categories about the topic. (ORC Resources)
6.Understand the importance of citing sources. (ORC Resources)
7.Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered. (ORC Resources)
  
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 3
1.Ask questions for clarification and explanation, and respond to others' ideas. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify the main idea, supporting details and purpose of oral presentations and visual media. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the difference between facts and opinions in presentations and visual media. (ORC Resources)
4.Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language. (ORC Resources)
5.Select language appropriate to purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
6.Use clear diction and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas. (ORC Resources)
7.Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the audience. (ORC Resources)
8.Deliver informational presentations that: a. present events or ideas in logical sequence and maintain a clear focus; b. demonstrate an understanding of the topic; c. include relevant facts and details from multiple sources to develop topic; d. organize information, including a clear introduction, body and conclusion; e. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and f. identify sources. (ORC Resources)
9.Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)