Ohio Resource Center

Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 4

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Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Determine the meaning of unknown words by using a variety of context clues, including word, sentence and paragraph clues. (ORC Resources)
2.Use context clues to determine the meaning of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms and homographs. (ORC Resources)
3.Recognize the difference between the meanings of connotation and denotation. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify and apply the meaning of the terms synonym, antonym, homophone and homograph. (ORC Resources)
5.Identify and understand new uses of words and phrases in text, such as similes and metaphors. (ORC Resources)
6.Identify word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases. (ORC Resources)
7.Identify the meanings of prefixes, suffixes and roots and their various forms to determine the meanings of words. (ORC Resources)
8.Identify the meanings of abbreviations. (ORC Resources)
9.Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars. (ORC Resources)
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Establish and adjust purposes for reading, including to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy and to solve problems. (ORC Resources)
2.Predict and support predictions using an awareness of new vocabulary, text structures and familiar plot patterns. (ORC Resources)
3.Compare and contrast information on a single topic or theme across different text and non-text resources. (ORC Resources)
4.Summarize important information in texts to demonstrate comprehension. (ORC Resources)
5.Make inferences or draw conclusions about what has been read and support those conclusions with textual evidence. (ORC Resources)
6.Select, create and use graphic organizers to interpret textual information. (ORC Resources)
7.Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
8.Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on or looking back. (ORC Resources)
9.List questions and search for answers within the text to construct meaning. (ORC Resources)
10.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
11.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Make inferences about informational text from the title page, table of contents and chapter headings. (ORC Resources)
2.Summarize main ideas in informational text, using supporting details as appropriate. (ORC Resources)
3.Locate important details about a topic, using different sources of information, including books, magazines, newspapers and online resources. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify examples of cause and effect used in informational text. (ORC Resources)
5.Draw conclusions from information in maps, charts, graphs and diagrams. (ORC Resources)
6.Clarify steps in a set of instructions or procedures for completeness. (ORC Resources)
7.Distinguish fact from opinion. (ORC Resources)
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Describe the thoughts, words and interactions of characters. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify the influence of setting on the selection. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the main incidents of a plot sequence, identifying the major conflict and its resolution. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first- and third-person narration. (ORC Resources)
5.Determine the theme and whether it is implied or stated directly. (ORC Resources)
6.Identify and explain the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including poetry, drama, fables, fantasies, chapter books, fiction and non-fiction. (ORC Resources)
7.Explain how an author's choice of words appeals to the senses and suggests mood. (ORC Resources)
8.Identify figurative language in literary works, including idioms, similes and metaphors. (ORC Resources)
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material. (ORC Resources)
2.State and develop a clear main idea for writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Develop a purpose and audience for writing. (ORC Resources)
4.Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
5.Organize writing, beginning with an introduction, body and a resolution of plot, followed by a closing statement or a summary of important ideas and details. (ORC Resources)
6.Vary simple, compound and complex sentence structures. (ORC Resources)
7.Create paragraphs with topic sentences and supporting sentences that are marked by indentation) and are linked by transitional words and phrases. (ORC Resources)
8.Vary language and style as appropriate to audience and purpose. (ORC Resources)
9.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
10.Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer's circle or author's chair). (ORC Resources)
11.Add descriptive words and details and delete extraneous information. (ORC Resources)
12.Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs to clarify meaning. (ORC Resources)
13.Use resources and reference materials, including dictionaries, to select more effective vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
14.Proofread writing and edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons. (ORC Resources)
15.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
16.Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a format appropriate to the purpose, using techniques such as electronic resources and graphics to enhance the final product. (ORC Resources)
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Write narratives that sequence events, including descriptive details and vivid language to develop plot, characters and setting and to establish a point of view. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to novels, stories and poems that include a simple interpretation of a literary work and support judgments with specific references to the original text and to prior knowledge. (ORC Resources)
3.Write formal and informal letters (e.g., thank you notes, letters of request) that follow letter format (e.g., date, proper salutation, body, closing and signature), include important information and demonstrate a sense of closure. (ORC Resources)
4.Write informational reports that include facts and examples and present important details in a logical order. (ORC Resources)
5.Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Write legibly in cursive, spacing letters, words and sentences appropriately. (ORC Resources)
2.Spell high-frequency words correctly. (ORC Resources)
3.Spell plurals and inflectional endings correctly. (ORC Resources)
4.Spell roots, suffixes and prefixes correctly. (ORC Resources)
5.Use commas, end marks, apostrophes and quotation marks correctly. (ORC Resources)
6.Use correct capitalization. (ORC Resources)
7.Use various parts of speech such as nouns, pronouns and verbs (e.g., regular and irregular, past, present and future). (ORC Resources)
8.Use conjunctions and interjections. (ORC Resources)
9.Use adverbs. (ORC Resources)
10.Use prepositions and prepositional phrases. (ORC Resources)
11.Use objective and nominative case pronouns. (ORC Resources)
12.Use subjects and verbs that are in agreement. (ORC Resources)
13.Use irregular plural nouns. (ORC Resources)
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Identify a topic and questions for research and develop a plan for gathering information. (ORC Resources)
2.Locate sources and collect relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Identify important information found in the sources and summarize important findings. (ORC Resources)
4.Create categories to sort and organize relevant information charts, tables or graphic organizers. (ORC Resources)
5.Discuss the meaning of plagiarism and create a list of sources. (ORC Resources)
6.Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered. (ORC Resources)
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 4
1.Demonstrate active listening strategies (e.g., asking focused questions, responding to cues, making visual contact). (ORC Resources)
2.Recall the main idea, including relevant supporting details, and identify the purpose of presentations and visual media. (ORC Resources)
3.Distinguish between a speaker's opinions and verifiable facts. (ORC Resources)
4.Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language. (ORC Resources)
5.Select language appropriate to purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
6.Use clear diction and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas. (ORC Resources)
7.Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the audience. (ORC Resources)
8.Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that: a. present events or ideas in a logical sequence and maintain a clear focus; b. demonstrate an understanding of the topic; c. include relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes to clarify and explain information; d. organize information to include a clear introduction, body and conclusion; e. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and f. draw from several sources and identify sources used. (ORC Resources)
9.Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)