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Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 5

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Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Define the meaning of unknown words by using context clues and the author's use of definition, restatement and example. (ORC Resources)
2.Use context clues to determine the meaning of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms and homographs. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the connotation and denotation of new words. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify and understand new uses of words and phrases in text, such as similes and metaphors. (ORC Resources)
5.Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases. (ORC Resources)
6.Apply the knowledge of prefixes, suffixes and roots and their various inflections to analyze the meanings of words. (ORC Resources)
7.Identify the meanings of abbreviations. (ORC Resources)
8.Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Establish and adjust purposes for reading, including to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy and to solve problems. (ORC Resources)
2.Predict and support predictions with specific references to textual examples that may be in widely separated sections of text. (ORC Resources)
3.Make critical comparisons across texts. (ORC Resources)
4.Summarize the information in texts, recognizing that there may be several important ideas rather than just one main idea and identifying details that support each. (ORC Resources)
5.Make inferences based on implicit information in texts, and provide justifications for those inferences. (ORC Resources)
6.Select, create and use graphic organizers to interpret textual information. (ORC Resources)
7.Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
8.Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back or summarizing what has been read so far in text. (ORC Resources)
9.List questions and search for answers within the text to construct meaning. (ORC Resources)
10.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres, or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
11.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Use text features, such as chapter titles, headings and subheadings; parts of books, including the index and table of contents and online tools (search engines) to locate information. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify, distinguish between and explain examples of cause and effect in informational text. (ORC Resources)
3.Compare important details about a topic, using different sources of information, including books, magazines, newspapers and online resources. (ORC Resources)
4.Summarize the main ideas and supporting details. (ORC Resources)
5.Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs and diagrams. (ORC Resources)
6.Clarify steps in a set of instructions or procedures for proper sequencing and completeness and revise if necessary. (ORC Resources)
7.Analyze the difference between fact and opinion. (ORC Resources)
8.Distinguish relevant from irrelevant information in a text and identify possible points of confusion for the reader. (ORC Resources)
9.Identify and understand an author's purpose for writing, including to explain, to entertain or to inform. (ORC Resources)
  
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Explain how a character's thoughts, words and actions reveal his or her motivations. (ORC Resources)
2.Explain the influence of setting on the selection. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the main incidents of a plot sequence and explain how they influence future action. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify the speaker and explain how point of view affects the text. (ORC Resources)
5.Summarize stated and implied themes. (ORC Resources)
6.Describe the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including poetry, drama, chapter books, biographies, fiction and non-fiction. (ORC Resources)
7.Interpret how an author's choice of words appeals to the senses and suggests mood. (ORC Resources)
8.Identify and explain the use of figurative language in literary works, including idioms, similes, hyperboles, metaphors and personification. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas. (ORC Resources)
2.Conduct background reading, interviews or surveys when appropriate. (ORC Resources)
3.State and develop a clear main idea for writing. (ORC Resources)
4.Determine a purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
5.Use organizational strategies (e.g., rough outlines, diagrams, maps, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
6.Organize writing, beginning with an introduction, body and a resolution of plot, followed by a closing statement or a summary of important ideas and details. (ORC Resources)
7.Vary simple, compound and complex sentence structures. (ORC Resources)
8.Group related ideas into paragraphs, including topic sentences following paragraph form, and maintain a consistent focus across paragraphs. (ORC Resources)
9.Vary language and style as appropriate to audience and purpose. (ORC Resources)
10.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
11.Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer's circle or author's chair). (ORC Resources)
12.Add and delete information and details to better elaborate on a stated central idea and to more effectively accomplish purpose. (ORC Resources)
13.Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs, and add transitional words and phrases to clarify meaning. (ORC Resources)
14.Use resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to select more effective vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
15.Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons. (ORC Resources)
16.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
17.Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a format appropriate to the purpose, using techniques such as electronic resources and graphics to enhance the final product. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Write narratives with a consistent point of view, using sensory details and dialogue to develop characters and setting. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to novels, stories and poems that organize an interpretation around several clear ideas, and justify the interpretation through the use of examples and specific textual evidence. (ORC Resources)
3.Write letters that state the purpose, make requests or give compliments and use business letter format. (ORC Resources)
4.Write informational essays or reports, including research, that organize information with a clear introduction, body and conclusion following common expository structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast) and include facts, details and examples to illustrate important ideas. (ORC Resources)
5.Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
  
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Spell high-frequency words correctly. (ORC Resources)
2.Spell contractions correctly. (ORC Resources)
3.Spell roots, suffixes and prefixes correctly. (ORC Resources)
4.Use commas, end marks, apostrophes and quotation marks correctly. (ORC Resources)
5.Use correct capitalization. (ORC Resources)
6.Use various parts of speech, such as nouns, pronouns and verbs (regular and irregular). (ORC Resources)
7.Use prepositions and prepositional phrases. (ORC Resources)
8.Use adverbs. (ORC Resources)
9.Use objective and nominative case pronouns. (ORC Resources)
10.Use indefinite and relative pronouns. (ORC Resources)
11.Use conjunctions and interjections. (ORC Resources)
  
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Generate a topic, assigned or personal interest, and open-ended questions for research and develop a plan for gathering information. (ORC Resources)
2.Locate sources and gather relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Identify important information found in sources and paraphrase the findings in a systematic way (e.g., notes, outlines, charts, tables or graphic organizers). (ORC Resources)
4.Compare and contrast important findings and select sources to support central ideas, concepts and themes. (ORC Resources)
5.Define plagiarism and acknowledge sources of information. (ORC Resources)
6.Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered. (ORC Resources)
  
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 5
1.Demonstrate active listening strategies (e.g., asking focused questions, responding to cues, making visual contact). (ORC Resources)
2.Interpret the main idea and draw conclusions from oral presentations and visual media. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the speaker's purpose in presentations and visual media (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade). (ORC Resources)
4.Discuss how facts and opinions are used to shape the opinions of listeners and viewers. (ORC Resources)
5.Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language and select language appropriate to purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
6.Use clear diction, pitch, tempo and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas. (ORC Resources)
7.Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the situation, setting and audience. (ORC Resources)
8.Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that: a. demonstrate an understanding of the topic and present events or ideas in a logical sequence; b. support the main idea with relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes; c. organize information, including a clear introduction, body and conclusion and follow common organizational structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast); d. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and e. draw from several sources and identify sources used. (ORC Resources)
9.Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)
10.Deliver persuasive presentations that: a. establish a clear position; b. include relevant evidence to support a position and to address potential concerns of listeners; and c. follow common organizational structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution). (ORC Resources)