Ohio Resource Center

Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of grade 6

Return to grade list
Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Define the meaning of unknown words by using context clues and the author's use of definition, restatement and example. (ORC Resources)
2.Apply knowledge of connotation and denotation to determine the meaning of words. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify analogies and other word relationships, including synonyms and antonyms, to determine the meaning of words. (ORC Resources)
4.Interpret metaphors and similes to understand new uses of words and phrases in text. (ORC Resources)
5.Recognize and use words from other languages that have been adopted into the English language. (ORC Resources)
6.Apply the knowledge of prefixes, suffixes and roots and their various inflections to analyze the meanings of words. (ORC Resources)
7.Identify symbols and acronyms and connect them to whole words. (ORC Resources)
8.Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars. (ORC Resources)
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Establish and adjust purposes for reading, including to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy and to solve problems. (ORC Resources)
2.Predict or hypothesize as appropriate from information in the text, substantiating with specific references to textual examples that may be in widely separated sections of text. (ORC Resources)
3.Make critical comparisons across texts, noting author's style as well as literal and implied content of text. (ORC Resources)
4.Summarize the information in texts, recognizing important ideas and supporting details, and noting gaps or contradictions. (ORC Resources)
5.Select, create and use graphic organizers to interpret textual information. (ORC Resources)
6.Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts, electronic and visual media. (ORC Resources)
7.Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back, note taking or summarizing what has been read so far in text. (ORC Resources)
8.List questions and search for answers within the text to construct meaning. (ORC Resources)
9.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others). (ORC Resources)
10.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). (ORC Resources)
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Use text features, such as chapter titles, headings and subheading; parts of books, including index, appendix, table of contents and online tools (search engines) to locate information. (ORC Resources)
2.Analyze examples of cause and effect and fact and opinion. (ORC Resources)
3.Compare and contrast important details about a topic, using different sources of information including books, magazines, newspapers and online resources. (ORC Resources)
4.Compare original text to a summary to determine the extent to which the summary adequately reflects the main ideas and critical details of the original text. (ORC Resources)
5.Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams and cutaways. (ORC Resources)
6.Identify an author's argument or viewpoint and assess the adequacy and accuracy of details used. (ORC Resources)
7.Identify and understand an author's purpose for writing, including to explain, entertain, persuade or inform. (ORC Resources)
8.Summarize information from informational text, identifying the treatment, scope and organization of ideas. (ORC Resources)
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Analyze the techniques authors use to describe characters, including narrator or other characters' point of view; character's own thoughts, words or actions. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify the features of setting and explain their importance in literary text. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify the main and minor events of the plot, and explain how each incident gives rise to the next. (ORC Resources)
4.Explain first, third and omniscient points of view, and explain how voice affects the text. (ORC Resources)
5.Identify recurring themes, patterns and symbols found in literature from different eras and cultures. (ORC Resources)
6.Explain the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including poetry, drama, myths, biographies, autobiographies, fiction and non-fiction. (ORC Resources)
7.Distinguish how an author establishes mood and meaning through word choice, figurative language and syntax. (ORC Resources)
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas. (ORC Resources)
2.Conduct background reading, interviews or surveys when appropriate. (ORC Resources)
3.Establish a thesis statement for informational writing or a plan for narrative writing. (ORC Resources)
4.Determine a purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
5.Use organizational strategies (e.g., rough outlines, diagrams, maps, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing. (ORC Resources)
6.Organize writing, beginning with an introduction, body and a resolution of plot, followed by a closing statement or a summary of important ideas and details. (ORC Resources)
7.Vary simple, compound and complex sentence structures. (ORC Resources)
8.Group related ideas into paragraphs, including topic sentences following paragraph form, and maintain a consistent focus across paragraphs. (ORC Resources)
9.Vary language and style as appropriate to audience and purpose. (ORC Resources)
10.Use available technology to compose text. (ORC Resources)
11.Reread and analyze clarity of writing. (ORC Resources)
12.Add and delete information and details to better elaborate on a stated central idea and to more effectively accomplish purpose. (ORC Resources)
13.Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs, and add transitional words and phrases to clarify meaning. (ORC Resources)
14.Use resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to select more effective vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
15.Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons. (ORC Resources)
16.Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. (ORC Resources)
17.Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a format appropriate to the purpose, using such techniques as electronic resources, principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing and columns) and graphics (e.g., drawings, charts and graphs) to enhance the final product. (ORC Resources)
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Write narratives that maintain a clear focus and point of view and use sensory details and dialogue to develop plot, characters, and a specific setting. (ORC Resources)
2.Write responses to novels, stories, poems and plays that provide an interpretation, critique or reflection and support judgments with specific references to the text. (ORC Resources)
3.Write letters that state the purpose, make requests or give compliments and use business letter format. (ORC Resources)
4.Write informational essays or reports, including research, that present a literal understanding of the topic, include specific facts, details and examples from multiple sources and create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience and context. (ORC Resources)
5.Write persuasive essays that establish a clear position and include organized and relevant information to support ideas. (ORC Resources)
6.Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and poems) for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Spell frequently misspelled and high-frequency words correctly. (ORC Resources)
2.Use commas, end marks, apostrophes and quotation marks correctly. (ORC Resources)
3.Use semicolons, colons, hyphens, dashes and brackets. (ORC Resources)
4.Use correct capitalization. (ORC Resources)
5.Use all eight parts of speech (e.g., noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). (ORC Resources)
6.Use verbs, including perfect tenses, transitive and intransitive verbs and linking verbs. (ORC Resources)
7.Use nominative, objective, possessive, indefinite and relative pronouns. (ORC Resources)
8.Use subject-verb agreement with collective nouns, indefinite pronouns, compound subjects and prepositional phrases. (ORC Resources)
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Generate a topic, assigned or personal interest, and open-ended questions for research and develop a plan for gathering information. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify appropriate sources, and gather relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources). (ORC Resources)
3.Identify elements of validity in sources, including publication date, coverage, language, points of view, and discuss primary and secondary sources. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify important information found in sources and paraphrase the findings in a systematic way (e.g., notes, outlines, charts, tables and graphic organizers). (ORC Resources)
5.Compare and contrast important findings and select sources to support central ideas, concepts and themes. (ORC Resources)
6.Use quotations to support ideas. (ORC Resources)
7.Use an appropriate form of documentation, with teacher assistance, to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited). (ORC Resources)
8.Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information that supports a clear position with organized and relevant evidence about the topic or research question. (ORC Resources)
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for grade 6
1.Demonstrate active listening strategies (e.g., asking focused questions, responding to cues, making visual contact). (ORC Resources)
2.Summarize the main idea and draw conclusions from presentations and visual media. (ORC Resources)
3.Interpret the speaker's purpose in presentations and visual media (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade). (ORC Resources)
4.Identify the persuasive techniques (e.g., bandwagon, testimonial, glittering generalities, emotional word repetition and bait and switch) used in presentations and media messages. (ORC Resources)
5.Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language and select language appropriate to purpose and audience. (ORC Resources)
6.Use clear diction and tone, and adjust volume, phrasing and tempo to stress important ideas. (ORC Resources)
7.Adjust speaking content and style according to the needs of the situation, setting and audience. (ORC Resources)
8.Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that: a. demonstrate an understanding of the topic and present events or ideas in a logical sequence; b. support the controlling idea or thesis with relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes; c. include an effective introduction and conclusion and use a consistent organizational structure (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast); d. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and e. draw from multiple sources and identify sources used. (ORC Resources)
9.Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations that convey relevant information and descriptive details. (ORC Resources)
10.Deliver persuasive presentations that: a. establish a clear position; b. include relevant evidence to support position and to address potential concerns of listeners; and c. follow common organizational structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution). (ORC Resources)