Ohio Resource Center

Ohio's Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts

By the end of kindergarten

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Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard
Students in the primary grades learn to recognize and decode printed words, developing the skills that are the foundations for independent reading. They discover the alphabetic principle (sound-symbol match) and learn to use it in figuring out new words. They build a stock of sight words that helps them to read quickly and accurately with comprehension. By the end of the third grade, they demonstrate fluent oral reading, varying their intonation and timing as appropriate for the text.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Read own first and last name. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify and complete rhyming words and patterns. (ORC Resources)
3.Distinguish the number of syllables in words by using rhythmic clapping, snapping or counting. (ORC Resources)
4.Distinguish and name all upper- and lower-case letters. (ORC Resources)
5.Recognize, say and write the common sounds of letters. (ORC Resources)
6.Distinguish letters from words by recognizing that words are separated by spaces. (ORC Resources)
7.Hear and say the separate phonemes in words, such as identifying the initial consonant sound in a word, and blend phonemes to say words. (ORC Resources)
8.Read one-syllable and often-heard words by sight. (ORC Resources)
9.Reread stories independently or as a group, modeling patterns of changes in timing, voice and expression. (ORC Resources)
Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Understand new words from the context of conversations or from the use of pictures within a text. (ORC Resources)
2.Recognize and understand words, signs and symbols seen in everyday life. (ORC Resources)
3.Identify words in common categories such as color words, number words and directional words. (ORC Resources)
4.Determine the meaning of unknown words, with assistance, using a beginner's dictionary. (ORC Resources)
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies Standard
Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem-solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evalute texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Demonstrate an understanding that print has meaning by explaining that text provides information or tells a story. (ORC Resources)
2.Hold books right side up, know that people read pages from front to back and read words from left to right. (ORC Resources)
3.Know the differences between illustrations and print. (ORC Resources)
4.Visualize the information in texts, and demonstrate this by drawing pictures, discussing images in texts or dictating simple descriptions. (ORC Resources)
5.Predict what will happen next, using pictures and content as a guide. (ORC Resources)
6.Compare information (e.g., recognize similarities) in texts using prior knowledge and experience. (ORC Resources)
7.Recall information from a story by sequencing pictures and events. (ORC Resources)
8.Answer literal questions to demonstrate comprehension of orally read grade-appropriate texts. (ORC Resources)
9.Monitor comprehension of orally read texts by asking and answering questions. (ORC Resources)
10.Identify favorite books and stories and participate in shared oral reading. (ORC Resources)
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Standard
Students gain information from reading for the purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Use pictures and illustrations to aid comprehension. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify and discuss the sequence of events in informational text. (ORC Resources)
3.Tell the main idea of a selection that has been read aloud. (ORC Resources)
4.Identify and discuss simple maps, charts and graphs. (ORC Resources)
5.Follow simple directions. (ORC Resources)
Reading Applications: Literary Text Standard
Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Identify favorite books and stories. (ORC Resources)
2.Identify the characters and setting in a story. (ORC Resources)
3.Retell or re-enact a story that has been heard. (ORC Resources)
4.Distinguish between fantasy and reality. (ORC Resources)
5.Recognize predictable patterns in stories. (ORC Resources)
Writing Process Standard
Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Generate writing ideas through discussions with others. (ORC Resources)
2.Choose a topic for writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Determine audience. (ORC Resources)
4.Organize and group related ideas. (ORC Resources)
5.Write from left to right and top to bottom. (ORC Resources)
6.Use correct sentence structures when expressing thoughts and ideas. (ORC Resources)
7.Reread own writing. (ORC Resources)
8.Use resources (e.g., a word wall) to enhance vocabulary. (ORC Resources)
9.Rewrite and illustrate writing samples for display and for sharing with others. (ORC Resources)
Writing Applications Standard
Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Dictate or write simple stories, using letters, words or pictures. (ORC Resources)
2.Name or label objects or places. (ORC Resources)
3.Write from left to right and from top to bottom. (ORC Resources)
4.Dictate or write informal writings for various purposes. (ORC Resources)
Writing Conventions Standard
Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Print capital and lowercase letters, correctly spacing the letters. (ORC Resources)
2.Leave spaces between words when writing. (ORC Resources)
3.Show characteristics of early letter name-alphabetic spelling. (ORC Resources)
4.Use some end consonant sounds when writing. (ORC Resources)
5.Place punctuation marks at the end of sentences. (ORC Resources)
Research Standard
Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Ask questions about a topic being studied or an area of interest. (ORC Resources)
2.Use books or observations to gather information, with teacher assistance, to explain a topic or unit of study. (ORC Resources)
3.Recall information about a topic, with teacher assistance. (ORC Resources)
4.Share findings visually or orally. (ORC Resources)
Communications: Oral and Visual Standard
Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Listen attentively to speakers, stories, poems and songs. (ORC Resources)
2.Connect what is heard with prior knowledge and experience. (ORC Resources)
3.Follow simple oral directions. (ORC Resources)
4.Speak clearly and understandably. (ORC Resources)
5.Deliver informal descriptive or informational presentations about ideas or experiences in logical order with a beginning, middle and end. (ORC Resources)
6.Recite short poems, songs and nursery rhymes. (ORC Resources)