Ohio Resource Center

Ohio's Academic Content Standards in Science

By the end of kindergarten

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Earth and Space Sciences
Students demonstrate an understanding about how Earth systems and processes interact in the geosphere resulting in the habitability of Earth. This includes demonstrating an understanding of the composition of the Universe, the Solar System and Earth. In addition, it includes understanding the properties and the interconnected nature of Earth's systems, processes that shape Earth and Earth's history. Students also demonstrate an understanding of how the concepts and principles of energy, matter, motion and forces explain Earth systems, the Solar System, and the Universe. Finally, they grasp an understanding of the historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with Earth and space sciences.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Observe that the Sun can be seen only in the daytime, but the Moon can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day. (ORC Resources)
2.Explore that animals and plants cause changes to their surroundings. (ORC Resources)
3.Explore that sometimes change is too fast to see and sometimes change is too slow to see. (ORC Resources)
4.Observe and describe day-to-day weather changes (e.g., today is hot, yesterday we had rain). (ORC Resources)
5.Observe and describe seasonal changes in weather. (ORC Resources)
Life Sciences
Students demonstrate an understanding of how living systems function and how they interact with the physical environment. This includes an understanding of the cycling of matter and flow of energy in living systems. An understanding of the characteristics, structure, and function of cells, of organisms and of living systems are developed as well as a deeper understanding of the principles of heredity, biological evolution, and the diversity and interdependence of life. Students also demonstrate an understanding of different historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with the life sciences.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Explore differences between living and non-living things (e.g., plant-rock). (ORC Resources)
2.Discover that stories (e.g., cartoons, movies, comics) sometimes give plants and animals characteristics they really do not have (e.g., talking flowers). (ORC Resources)
3.Describe how plants and animals usually resemble their parents. (ORC Resources)
4.Investigate variations that exist among individuals of the same kind of plant or animal. (ORC Resources)
5.Investigate observable features of plants and animals that help them live in different kinds of places. (ORC Resources)
6.Investigate the habitats of many different kinds of local plants and animals and some of the ways in which animals depend on plants and each other in our community (ORC Resources)
Physical Sciences
Students demonstrate an understanding of the composition of physical systems and the concepts and principles that describe and predict physical interactions and events in the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding of the structure and properties of matter, the properties of materials and objects, chemical reactions and the conservation of matter. In addition, it includes understanding the nature, transfer and conservation of energy, as well as motion and the forces affecting motion, the nature of waves and interactions of matter and energy. Students also demonstrate an understanding of the historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with the physical sciences.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Demonstrate that objects are made of parts (e.g., toys, chairs). (ORC Resources)
2.Examine and describe objects according to the materials that make up the object (e.g., wood, metal, plastic, cloth). (ORC Resources)
3.Describe and sort objects by one or more properties (e.g., size, color, shape). (ORC Resources)
4.Explore that things can be made to move in many different ways such as straight, zigzag, up and down, round and round, back and forth, or fast and slow. (ORC Resources)
5.Investigate ways to change how something is moving (e.g., push, pull). (ORC Resources)
Science and Technology
Students should recognize that science and technology are interconnected and that using technology involves assessment of the benefits, risks, and costs. Students should build scientific and technological knowledge, as well as the skill required to design and construct devices. In addition, they should develop the processes to solve problems and to understand that problems may be solved in several ways.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Explore that objects can be sorted as "natural" or "man-made". (ORC Resources)
2.Explore that some materials can be used over and over again (e.g., plastic or glass containers, cardboard boxes and tubes). (ORC Resources)
3.Explore that each kind of tool has an intended use, which can be helpful or harmful (e.g., scissors can be used to cut paper but they can also hurt you). (ORC Resources)
Scientific Inquiry
Students develop scientific habits of mind as they use the processes of scientific inquiry to ask valid questions, and to gather and analyze information. They understand how to develop hypotheses and make predictions. They are able to reflect on scientific practices as they develop plans of action to create and evaluate a variety of conclusions. Students are also able to demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Ask "what if" questions. (ORC Resources)
2.Explore and pursue student-generated "what if" questions. (ORC Resources)
3.Use appropriate safety procedures when completing scientific investigations. (ORC Resources)
4.Use the five senses to make observations about the natural world. (ORC Resources)
5.Draw pictures that correctly portray features of the item being described. (ORC Resources)
6.Recognize that numbers can be used to count a collection of things. (ORC Resources)
7.Use appropriate tools and simple equipment/instruments to safely gather scientific data (e.g., magnifiers and other appropriate tools). (ORC Resources)
8.Measure the lengths of objects using non-standard methods of measurement (e.g., teddy bear counters, pennies). (ORC Resources)
9.Make pictographs and use them to describe observations and draw conclusions. (ORC Resources)
10.Make new observations when people give different descriptions for the same thing. (ORC Resources)
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Students realize that the current body of scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification, and limited to the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding that scientific knowledge grows and advances as new evidence is discovered to support or modify existing theories, as well as to encourage the development of new theories. Students are able to reflect on ethical scientific practices and demonstrate an understanding of how the current body of scientific knowledge reflects the historical and cultural contributions of women and men who provide us with a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the natural world.
Indicators for kindergarten
1.Recognize that scientific investigations involve asking open-ended questions. (How? What if?) (ORC Resources)
2.Recognize that people are more likely to accept your ideas if you can give good reasons for them. (ORC Resources)
3.Interact with living things and the environment in ways that promote respect. (ORC Resources)
4.Demonstrate ways science is practiced by people everyday (children and adults). (ORC Resources)