Ohio Resource Center

# Ohio's Academic Content Standards in Mathematics

## Benchmarks

Measurement Standard
Students estimate and measure to a required degree of accuracy and precision by selecting and using appropriate units, tools, and technologies.

By the end of the K - 2 program:
 A. Explain the need for standard units of measure. (ORC Resources) B. Select appropriate units for length, weight, volume (capacity) and time, using: objects; i.e., non-standard units; U.S. customary units: inch, foot, yard, ounce, pound, cup, quart, gallon, minute, hour, day, week and year; metric units: centimeter, meter, gram and liter. (ORC Resources) C. Develop common referents for units of measure for length, weight, volume (capacity) and time to make comparisons and estimates. (ORC Resources) D. Apply measurement techniques to measure length, weight and volume (capacity). (ORC Resources) E. Recognize that using different units of measurement will yield different numbers for the same measurement. (ORC Resources)

By the end of the 3 - 4 program:
 A. Select appropriate units for perimeter, area, weight, volume (capacity), time and temperature, using: objects of uniform size; U.S. customary units; e.g., mile, square inch, cubic inch, second, degree Fahrenheit, and other units as appropriate; metric units; e.g., millimeter, kilometer, square centimeter, kilogram, cubic centimeter, degree Celsius, and other units as appropriate. (ORC Resources) B. Know that the number of units is inversely related to the size of the unit for any item being measured. (ORC Resources) C. Develop common referents for units of measure for length, weight, volume (capacity) and time to make comparisons and estimates. (ORC Resources) D. Identify appropriate tools and apply counting techniques for measuring side lengths, perimeter and area of squares, rectangles, and simple irregular two-dimensional shapes, volume of rectangular prisms, and time and temperature. (ORC Resources) E. Tell time to the nearest minute. (ORC Resources)

By the end of the 5 - 7 program:
 A. Select appropriate units to measure angles, circumference, surface area, mass and volume, using: U.S. customary units; e.g., degrees, square feet, pounds, and other units as appropriate; metric units; e.g., square meters, kilograms and other units as appropriate. (ORC Resources) B. Convert units of length, area, volume, mass and time within the same measurement system. (ORC Resources) C. Identify appropriate tools and apply appropriate techniques for measuring angles, perimeter or circumference and area of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles and composite shapes, and surface area and volume of prisms and cylinders. (ORC Resources) D. Select a tool and measure accurately to a specified level of precision. (ORC Resources) E. Use problem solving techniques and technology as needed to solve problems involving length, weight, perimeter, area, volume, time and temperature. (ORC Resources) F. Analyze and explain what happens to area and perimeter or surface area and volume when the dimensions of an object are changed. (ORC Resources) G. Understand and demonstrate the independence of perimeter and area for two-dimensional shapes and of surface area and volume for three-dimensional shapes. (ORC Resources)

By the end of the 8 - 10 program:
 A. Solve increasingly complex non-routine measurement problems and check for reasonableness of results. (ORC Resources) B. Use formulas to find surface area and volume for specified three-dimensional objects accurate to a specified level of precision. (ORC Resources) C. Apply indirect measurement techniques, tools and formulas, as appropriate, to find perimeter, circumference and area of circles, triangles, quadrilaterals and composite shapes, and to find volume of prisms, cylinders, and pyramids. (ORC Resources) D. Use proportional reasoning and apply indirect measurement techniques, including right triangle trigonometry and properties of similar triangles, to solve problems involving measurements and rates. (ORC Resources) E. Estimate and compute various attributes, including length, angle measure, area, surface area and volume, to a specified level of precision. (ORC Resources) F. Write and solve real-world, multi-step problems involving money, elapsed time and temperature, and verify reasonableness of solutions. (ORC Resources)

By the end of the 11 - 12 program:
 A. Explain differences among accuracy, precision and error, and describe how each of those can affect solutions in measurement situations. (ORC Resources) B. Apply various measurement scales to describe phenomena and solve problems. (ORC Resources) C. Estimate and compute areas and volume in increasingly complex problem situations. (ORC Resources) D. Solve problem situations involving derived measurements; e.g., density, acceleration. (ORC Resources)