Observations of both living and nonliving things in local surroundings. This includes water, the sun, rocks and soil, human-made materials and living organisms. This encourages the examination and exploration of the environment.
Living and nonliving things have specific physical properties that can be used to sort and classify. The physical properties of air and water are presented as they apply to weather.
Energy is observed through movement, heating, cooling and the needs of living organisms.
Living and nonliving things may move. A moving object has energy. Air moving is wind and wind can make a windmill turn. Changes in energy and movement can cause change to organisms and the environments in which they live.
Matter is what makes up all substances on Earth. Matter has specific properties and exists in different states. Earth’s resources are made of matter. Matter can be used by living things and can be used for the energy they contain. There are many different forms of energy. Each living component of an ecosystem is composed of matter and uses energy.
Heat and electricity are forms of energy that can be transferred from one location to another. Matter has properties that allow the transfer of heat and electricity. Heating and cooling affect the weathering of Earth’s surface and Earth’s past environments. The processes that shape Earth’s surface and the fossil evidence found can help decode Earth’s history.
Cycles on Earth, such as those occurring in ecosystems, in the solar system, and in the movement of light and sound result in describable patterns. Speed is a measurement of movement that is related to force and weight. The transfer of energy drives changes in systems, including ecosystems and physical systems.
All matter is made of small particles called atoms. The properties of matter are based on the order and organization of atoms and molecules. Cells, minerals, rocks and soil are all examples of matter.
Systems can exchange energy and/or matter when interactions occur within systems and between systems. Systems cycle matter and energy in observable and predictable patterns.
Systems can be described and understood by analysis of the interaction of their components. Energy, forces and motion combine to change the physical features of the Earth. The changes of the physical Earth and the species that have lived on Earth are found in the rock record. For species to continue, reproduction must be successful.